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Bilingual-Bicultural Education Act of 1976; Definitions   

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Unless the context otherwise requires, the definitions set forth in this section shall govern the construction of this article.

(a) "Basic bilingual education" is a system of instruction that builds upon the language skills of the pupil and that consists of, but is not limited to, all of the following:

(1) A structured English language development component with daily instruction leading to the acquisition of English language proficiency, including English reading and writing skills.

(2) A structured primary language component with daily basic skills instruction in the primary language for the purpose of sustaining achievement in basic subject areas until the transfer to English is made.

As the pupil develops English language skills, the amount of instruction offered through English shall increase.

(b) "Bilingual-bicultural education" is a system of instruction that uses two languages, one of which is English, as a means of instruction. It is a means of instruction that builds upon and expands the existing language skills of each participating pupil, that will enable the pupil to achieve competency in both languages.

This instruction shall include all of the following:

(1) Daily instruction in English language development that shall include:

(A) Listening and speaking skills.

(B) Reading and writing skills; formal instruction in reading and writing of English shall be introduced when appropriate criteria are met.

(2) Language development in the pupil's primary language, including oral and literacy skills.

(3) Reading in the pupil's primary language.

(4) Selected subjects taught in the pupil's primary language.

(5) Development of an understanding of the history and culture of California and the United States, as well as an understanding of customs and values of the cultures associated with the languages being taught.

(c) (1) "Experimental bilingual programs" are:

(A) Innovative programs that are consistent with the provisions of this article, the requirements for bilingual teaching personnel pursuant to Section 52165, and the requirements for English language and primary language development pursuant to this section. Innovative programs may include new management approaches, greater emphasis on team teaching, or other appropriate improvements that expand the learning opportunities of pupils of limited English proficiency. Unless waivers of code sections are required, project approval of the state board is not required. A description of each innovative program shall be included with the consolidated application for program funding and an annual evaluation of the programs shall be included in the multiple-funded program evaluation required pursuant to Section 33403.

(B) Planned variation programs for the purpose of comparing and improving language development programs for pupils of limited English proficiency. A primary focus shall be on appropriate instruction for pupils of limited English proficiency whose English skills are superior to their skills in their primary language.

A focus may also be placed upon situations in which the number of pupils who, in accordance with Section 52165, would be required to receive instruction pursuant to subdivision (a) or (b) of Section 52163, is substantially smaller than the census indicated for the previous year, in which case all pupils of limited English proficiency shall receive instruction through individual learning programs during the preparation of the district's proposal and the consideration of the proposal by the state board. The programs shall be authorized by the state board in up to 300 classrooms in 1982-83 and up to 700 classrooms in 1983-84 and each school year thereafter in districts that are representative of the state both geographically and by size. Not more than 30 classrooms in 1982-83 and 50 classrooms in 1983-84, that may or may not be in another school, shall be approved in any one district. The programs shall not result in segregation. For districts proposing a planned variation program, the staffing requirements of Section 52165 may be partially or totally waived by the state board provided that the district has an inadequate number of certified bilingual teachers, that certified bilingual teachers are not replaced, that present level of effort is not reduced, and that the proposed language development program is appropriate. For each participating classroom there shall be another similar classroom in the district that has fully implemented and is in compliance with the other provisions of this article.

(2) Proposals for planned variation programs shall include, but need not be limited to:

(A) A clear statement of the purposes, goals, and objectives for planned variation programs and projected outcomes.

(B) A delineated management, staffing, and instructional plan.

(C) Pupil identification, diagnosis, and assessment procedures.

(D) Evidence of qualified bilingual and other instructional staff with demonstrated competence in language development, bicultural or multicultural knowledge of participating pupils, and instructional methodologies.

(E) Documented parent and community participation and support.

(F) Use of state and federal funding, where applicable.

(G) Evaluation component that controls for instructional treatments, instructional engaged time, staffing, pupil language characteristics, achievement, attendance, and related data.

(H) For purposes of this subdivision, if formal action upon a proposal for a planned variation program is not taken by the state board on or before the second regular meeting of the state board following the receipt of a complete and documented proposal, the proposal shall be deemed approved for the remainder of the school year.

Proposals that meet the requirements of this subdivision shall be approved by the state board in accordance with standards established in subdivision (b) of Section 52820.

Proposals may be approved annually for a second, third, or fourth year based upon a demonstration of compliance with planned variation program requirements.

(3) The department shall include in its annual report to the Legislature submitted pursuant to Sections 33405 and 52171.6 the number and nature of experimental bilingual and planned variation programs and progress of participating pupils.

(4) Nothing contained in this subdivision shall be construed to permit the operation of experimental bilingual and planned variation programs contrary to the purposes or intent of this article and other state or federal statutes and regulations promulgated for and on behalf of pupils of limited English proficiency. The primary goal of all programs shall be to teach the pupil English.

(d) "Secondary level language development program" is a program in grades 7 to 12 that provides a prescriptive English language program that systematically develops a pupil's listening and speaking skills, knowledge of linguistic and grammatical structure leading to proficiency in reading and writing English. The prescriptive English language program shall be based on the diagnosis of a pupil's language skills pursuant to Sections 52164 and 52164.1 and shall be conducted as an integral instructional program of English curriculum for not less than one full period a day or its equivalent for the purpose of providing pupils with minimum English language competencies pursuant to subdivision (e). The primary goal of the programs shall be to teach pupils the English language.

In addition to the prescriptive English language program required by this subdivision, a secondary level language development program shall provide primary language instructional support to sustain academic achievement in nonelective content subject areas required for high school graduation consistent with current law.

Instruction in a secondary level language development program shall be provided either by a language development specialist, or by a certified bilingual-crosscultural teacher, who has received the recommendation of the local superintendent of schools verifying in writing that the teacher is competent and qualified to teach an English-as-a-second-language component, as measured by the district's personnel evaluation system.

School districts offering an instructional program pursuant to this subdivision shall not be required to provide a secondary level individual learning program, as defined in subdivision (e), but shall be required to maintain records documenting all parental notices and of the continuing evaluation of pupil needs and services.

A school district may make a secondary level language development program available to pupils enrolled in grade 6 whenever that grade is maintained by the district in a middle school comprised of any of grades 6, 7, 8, or 9.

(e) "Secondary level individual learning program" is an individualized systematic program of instruction that meets the needs of limited-English-proficient pupils and builds upon their language skills in order to develop proficiency in English. This program shall be offered in a manner consistent with the United States Supreme Court decision in Lau v. Nichols (414 U.S. 563), the Equal Education Opportunities Act of 1974 (20 U.S.C. SEC. 1701 et seq.) and federal regulations promulgated pursuant to those court decisions and federal statutes. The primary goal of the programs shall be to teach the pupil English.

(f) "Elementary level individual learning program" is any program of instruction for a pupil of limited English proficiency in which any one of the three program options described in subdivision (a), (b), or (c) is individualized to meet the needs of the pupil of limited English proficiency and is offered in a manner consistent with the requirements of this article. Instruction shall be offered in a manner consistent with the United States Supreme Court decision in Lau v. Nichols (414 U.S. 563), the Equal Educational Opportunities Act of 1974 (20 U.S.C. SEC. 1701 et seq.), and federal regulations promulgated pursuant to those court decisions and federal statutes. The primary goal of the programs shall be to teach the pupil English.

(g) "Primary language" is a language other than English that is the language the pupil first learned or the language that is spoken in the pupil's home.

(h) "Bilingual-crosscultural teacher" means a person who (1) holds a valid, regular California teaching credential and (2) holds either a bilingual-crosscultural certificate of proficiency or other credential in bilingual education authorized by the Commission on Teacher Credentialing or a bilingual-crosscultural specialist credential. The person shall be fluent in the primary language and familiar with the cultural heritage of limited-English-proficiency pupils in the bilingual classes he or she conducts. The person shall have a professional demonstrated working knowledge of the methodologies that are necessary to effectively educate those pupils.

(i) "Bilingual-crosscultural teacher aide" means an aide fluent in both English and the primary language of the pupil or pupils of limited English proficiency in a bilingual-bicultural program. The aide shall be familiar with the cultural heritage of pupils of limited English proficiency in the bilingual classes to which he or she is assigned.

(j) "State board" means the State Board of Education.

(k) "Superintendent" means the Superintendent of Public Instruction.

( l ) "Basic skills" means language arts, including, but not limited to, reading and writing, and mathematics.

(m) "Pupils of limited English proficiency" are pupils who do not have the clearly developed English language skills of comprehension, speaking, reading, and writing necessary to receive instruction only in English at a level substantially equivalent to pupils of the same age or grade whose primary language is English. The determination of which pupils are pupils of limited English proficiency shall be made in accordance with the procedures specified in Sections 52164 and 52164.1. Pupils who have no proficiency in their primary language are not included within this definition.

(n) "Pupils of fluent English proficiency" are pupils whose English proficiency is comparable to that of the majority of pupils, of the same age or grade, whose primary language is English.

(o) "Department" means the State Department of Education.

(Amended by Stats. 2009, Ch. 53, Sec. 17.)

Reference:

20 USC 1701 et seq.

Education Code 33403

Education Code 33405

Education Code 52163

Education Code 52164

Education Code 52164.1

Education Code 52165

Education Code 52171.6

Education Code 52820