(a) It does not constitute a violation of this chapter for a person or entity solely to provide access or connection to or from a facility, system, or network over which that person or entity has no control, including related capabilities that are incidental to providing access or connection. This subdivision does not apply to an individual or entity that is owned or controlled by, or a conspirator with, an entity actively involved in the creation, editing, or knowing distribution of communications that violate this chapter.
(b) An employer is not liable under this chapter for the actions of an employee or agent unless the employee's or agent's conduct is within the scope of his or her employment or agency and the employer has knowledge of, authorizes, or ratifies the employee's or agent's conduct.
(c) It is a defense to prosecution under this chapter and in any civil action that may be instituted based on a violation of this chapter that a person has taken reasonable, effective, and appropriate actions in good faith to restrict or prevent the transmission of, or access to, a communication specified in this chapter.
(Added by Stats. 1996, Ch. 1080, Sec. 8.)