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Referral, evaluation, and treatment.
(a) Each driver who has engaged in conduct prohibited by subpart B of this part shall be advised by the employer of the resources available to the driver in evaluating and resolving problems associated with the misuse of alcohol and use of controlled substances, including the names, addresses, and telephone numbers of substance abuse professionals and counseling and treatment programs.
(b) Each driver who engages in conduct prohibited by subpart B of this part shall be evaluated by a substance abuse professional who shall determine what assistance, if any, the employee needs in resolving problems associated with alcohol misuse and controlled substances use.
(c)(1) Before a driver returns to duty requiring the performance of a safety-sensitive function after engaging in conduct prohibited by subpart B of this part, the driver shall undergo a return-to-duty alcohol test with a result indicating an alcohol concentration of less than 0.02 if the conduct involved alcohol, or a controlled substances test with a verified negative result if the conduct involved a controlled substance.
(2) In addition, each driver identified as needing assistance in resolving problems associated with alcohol misuse or controlled substances use,
(i) Shall be evaluated by a substance abuse professional to determine that the driver has properly followed any rehabilitation program prescribed under paragraph (b) of this section, and
(ii) Shall be subject to unannounced follow-up alcohol and controlled substances tests administered by the employer following the driver's return to duty. The number and frequency of such follow-up testing shall be as directed by the substance abuse professional, and consist of at least six tests in the first 12 months following the driver's return to duty. The employer may direct the driver to undergo return-to-duty and follow-up testing for both alcohol and controlled substances, if the substance abuse professional determines that return- to-duty and follow-up testing for both alcohol and controlled substances is necessary for that particular driver. Any such testing shall be performed in accordance with the requirements of 49 CFR part 40. Follow- up testing shall not exceed 60 months from the date of the driver's return to duty. The substance abuse professional may terminate the requirement for follow-up testing at any time after the first six tests have been administered, if the substance abuse professional determines that such testing is no longer necessary.
(d) Evaluation and rehabilitation may be provided by the employer, by a substance abuse professional under contract with the employer, or by a substance abuse professional not affiliated with the employer. The choice of substance abuse professional and assignment of costs shall be made in accordance with employer/driver agreements and employer policies.
(e) The employer shall ensure that a substance abuse professional who determines that a driver requires assistance in resolving problems with alcohol misuse or controlled substances use does not refer the driver to the substance abuse professional's private practice or to a person or organization from which the substance abuse professional receives remuneration or in which the substance abuse professional has a financial interest. This paragraph does not prohibit a substance abuse professional from referring a driver for assistance provided through--
(1) A public agency, such as a State, county, or municipality;
(2) The employer or a person under contract to provide treatment for alcohol or controlled substance problems on behalf of the employer;
(3) The sole source of therapeutically appropriate treatment under the driver's health insurance program; or
(4) The sole source of therapeutically appropriate treatment reasonably accessible to the driver.
(f) The requirements of this section with respect to referral, evaluation and rehabilitation do not apply to applicants who refuse to submit to a pre-employment alcohol or controlled substances test or who have a pre-employment alcohol test with a result indicating an alcohol concentration of 0.04 or greater or a controlled substances test with a verified positive test result.